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"The future of Memory Enhancing Medications, closer then we imagine"

In the next few years we can expect to see a series of newly
developed drugs marketed for their ability to aide those with
certain cognitive impairments. And as with most cases these
drugs once on the market will be used by others for their enhancement ability once shown to be of value in clinical study groups. One such group has now been identified. Although not availible yet to the public at large. This newly discovered group may lead those who wish to embark on such a journey to test these medications for other purposes. And hopefully as time passes they will be shown to be as safe and effected as the most popular class currently used my several millions of Smart Drugs advocates today.

This newly discovered class of drugs is called " Ampakine's ".

What are Ampakines?

Ampakines -

In 1993, Cortex licensed a new class of compounds, the AMPAKINEs ®,
from the University of California.

AMPAKINEs enhance the functioning of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor
by increasing the amount of current flow that takes place when glutamate
binds to the receptor.

Dr. Gary Lynch, Professor of Psychobiology at the University of California, Irvine and a Cortex co-founder and Scientific Advisor, has developed a variety of model systems for examining aspects of brain activity and memory formation. These range from complex culture techniques to animal behavioral models. Dr. Lynch's
laboratory has extensively characterized the mechanism of action of AMPAKINEs and has shown that the compounds facilitate long-term potentiation. It is apparently through this activity that they improve the encoding of memory.

The first major results of AMPAKINE testing in animal behavioral models of learning and memory were reported in 1994 in the prestigious journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In tests of both short- and long-term memory, AMPAKINE-treated rats performed better than control animals. The
authors concluded that "facilitation of [excitatory] transmission causes a general improvement in memory encoding."

The University of California and Cortex have filed a number of broad patent applications covering the AMPAKINEs, and Cortex presently has about 200 compounds in its AMPAKINE "library."

For several years, Cortex has been studying an AMPAKINE, CX516, in human clinical trials with healthy young adult and elderly volunteers. In each of the three clinical studies that have been completed, CX516 was shown to be safe and well tolerated upon acute administration and to have statistically significant positive effects on memory performance. Cortex initiated Phase I/IIa studies in patients,
as opposed to healthy volunteers, early in 1997.

One Such Drug in this newly developed class is called " Ampalex (CX516) ".

What is Ampalex (CX516)?

Ampalex (CX516) is an experimental drug which stimulates some of the chemical
messengers in the brain. It is known as an AMPAkine, named for the type of chemical messenger. This drug is being studied to determine whether it can improve some features of Alzheimer's disease.


Frequently Asked Questions About Ampalex (CX516)

NIH to Study Cortex's AMPALEX in Alzheimer's Patients

DGNews: NIH to Study Cortex's AMPALEX in Alzheimer's Patients

Ampalex Found to Have Positive Effects on Memory Deficits in Alzheimer's

NIMH Now Has Ampalex

AMPALEX Has Long-term Effects on Neuronal Function

Welcome to Cortex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

The AMPA Receptor Program

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