Make your own free website on Tripod.com


Narcolepsy and Impaired Memory:

There is a side of Narcolepsy that many have mentioned in support groups often. It is the odd "Memory Impairment". Or lack of either short term or long term memory. And in some cases, both.  Currently there is no treatment (at least in the USA) "for this side of the disease".



PIRACETAM: What is; (Description and other information below)

Piracetam (a.k.a. Nootropil & a.k.a. Nootropyl) "Definition: Long version"

"...It helps boost intelligence without being toxic or addictive. Piracetam is very similar in
chemical structure to the amino acid pyroglutamate, present in meat, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products. Piracetam stimulates the cerebral cortex and increases the rate of metabolism and energy level of brain cells.  It does not have the side effects associated with other stimulants.    The primary clinical use is to protect the brain from damage caused by hypoxia, which is oxygen starvation, and to help recover from it. Brain cells can be starved for oxygen by drinking too much alcohol, for example. Another clinical use is stemming memory loss caused by physical injury and chemical poisoning. Reference    And even in the case of "sleep Apnea" where most people would normally be required to use continuous positive airway pressure device. (CPAP) Otherwise they would become in a state of hypoxia. Piracetam is being studied for these and many other possible health problems.

Piracetam is a member of the class of drugs known as nootropics. Nootropics are known commonly as cognitive enhances. Piracetam is similar in molecular structure to the amino acid pyroglutamate. Piracetam and pyroglutamate have the same base chemical structure, the 2-oxo-pyrrolidine, but they differ by a side chain. Pyroglutamate is 2-oxo-pyrrolidine carboxylic acid, and piracetam is 2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide.

Piracetam was created about 30 years ago by UCB laboratories. Other trade names include: Avigilen, Cerebroforte, Cerebrospan, Cetam, Dinagen, Encefalux, Encetrop, Euvifor, gabacet, Genogris, Memo-Puren, Nootron, Nootrop, Nootropil, Nootropyl, Normabrain, Norzetam, Pirroxil, Psycotron, Stimucortex, and UCB-6215.    Reference



What are the reported benefits of Piracetam?

Piracetam is reported to enhance cognitive functions of the brain. It is said to enhanced memory, attention, intelligence, etc. It is commonly known as a " smart drug " for this reason.    There is very little empirical evidence to support this claim in healthy individuals. However for those who do take piracetam, some report a antidepressant like feeling as well. Therefore, for some who take it for another condition and might normally take it with a SSRI for example. Piracetam alone may reduce the need for the other to be taken as well. Piracetam is believed to increase blood flow between the two hemispheres of the brain. It's also been reported to protect brain tissue from various physical and chemical abrasions such as alcohol damage. The reported experiences alone merit its investigation for other possible uses.

Currently in europe and throughout different parts of the world, piracetam is being used for the following purposes and treatments. Alzheimer, Elderly Drivers, Children with dyslexia, Parkinson, ADD, and alleviation of Cognitive Disorders an/or impairment(s).  And in the USA, (yes I said USA) it is being used, (Not with the consent or endorsement of the FDA) as a complementary treatment in Down Syndrome.  With a Doctors prescription there are a few "compounding companies" that will fill the prescription order in the USA. And there are sources outside the USA to provide it with or without a prescription. But this is still classified as a unproved drug since not being given another classification by the FDA. (Again, always use under a doctors supervision due to its possible interactions with other medications etc)

Note: Piracetam will begin trials in the USA for its possible treatment of "myoclonic [seizures]" (See information at end of section on piracetam below) Piracetam has a informal study being done. For the treatment of Down Syndrome. In the USA.



What is Piracetam prescribed for in other countries?

Piracetam and it's Licensed Uses in the U.K. (United Kingdom):

Mental function disorders, Mental function impairment, Cerebrovascular disorders,
Vertigo, Alcholism, Cerebral trama, Mental function impairment in the elderly, Cerebral infarction, and Dyslexia in children.



For more information visit:

A.) Pharmacy Mail Exchange BBS                B.) Instructions: Nootropil (aka Piracetam)
C.) Erowid: FAQ's, Links, Info                      D.) Excerpts: Book: "Smart Drugs & Nutrients"
E.) Hyperreal Information: Piracetam           F.) Information & pics: Piracetam
G.) Piracetam & Down’s Syndrome              H.) Nootropic interactions with psychedelics
I.) Some other information (unsorted)          J.) Piracetam Research: by Dr. Leshin MD
K.) Piracetam & References                          L.) Abstract Medical Studies
M.) Chemical Makeup & Info                        N.) Misc Posts on News Groups
O.) Effects, uses, & info                               P.) F.A.Q's on Piracetam
Q.) CERI's web site for Piracetam & Downsyndrome



Special Note on Piracetam and MYOCLONUS:

Myoclonus is a condition that has merit when speaking about the disease of narcolepsy.
Although most doctors don't make the connection.  The connection, though listening to
the patient is required here, may be apparent. Myoclonus, has a strange and similar action
to what some people with narcolepsy have mentioned over the years. That of a strange,
electric shock type of jerking.  Usually in their arms or legs right before falling asleep.
Not exactly like restless leg syndrome which normally happens while the person is asleep.
This disorder happens before the person falls asleep. The disorder is usually more sever then just a quick "jolt". But some mild cases it is just that. A short couple or just one jolt. Then they can fall asleep. Recent treatments, even in the USA by physicians has also included piracetam filled by a prescription and sent to a compounding pharmacy. Piracetam as mentioned has been given a grant under the FDA's Orphan Drug testing program for its possible treatment of Myoclonus.  So further further hope for its possible commercial release may finally be realized.    (This is not intended as a medical diagnosis.)



A.) RESEARCH ACTIVITIES. Studies in Japan (In English)
*Note: if this page appears odd, click "reload" and it will return in english.


PRAMIRACETAM:

PRAMIRACETAM, also known as CI-879, is another chemical relative to piracetam, and has a similar effect in improving the operations of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Like oxiracetam, pramiracetam appears to be more potent than piracetam. Although pramiracetam seems more potent and effective, it is less common than piracetam. Pramiracetam is newer, less tested, and less available. Parke-Davis is working through the maze of FDA approval of pramiracetam to treat Alzheimer's disease. (Reference click here)(Reported Experiences click here)



Studies:

A.) Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics
B.) Kynurenic acid & 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acids improve social & object recognition...
C.) Systemic administration; Pramiracetam increases nitric oxide synthase activity in cerebral cortex of the rat
D.) Elevated corticosteroid levels block the memory-improving effects of nootropics & cholinomimetics
E.) Pramiracetam in young males w/ memory & cognitive problems from head injury and anoxia
F.) Protective effect; a novel pyrrolidone derivative, against experimental cerebral anoxia
G.) Involvement of a steroidal component in the mechanism action of piracetam-like nootropics
H.) The effects of nootropics on memory: new aspects for basic research
I.) Reversal of scopolamine-induced alterations of choline transport across the blood-brain barrier by the nootropics piracetam and pramiracetam
J.) Memory-enhancing effects piracetam-like nootropics dependent on experimental parameters
K.) Nootropic drugs and brain cholinergic mechanisms
L.) [Cholinergic effects of nootropics]
M.) Effects of nootropic drugs on brain cholinergic and dopaminergic transmission
N.) Amnesia produced by intracerebroventricular injections of hemicholinium-3 in mice was prevented by pretreatment with piracetam-like compounds
O.) Cholinergic drugs support avoidance learning hypothesis, brief footshock induced analgesia
P.) The effect of pramiracetam (CI-879) on the acquisition of a radial arm maze task
Q.) Arousal deficit in aged rat's quantitative EEG & ameliorative action of pramiracetam compared to piracetam
R.) Pharmacokinetics of oral pramiracetam in normal volunteers
S.) Amnesia-reversal activity of a series of N-[(disubstituted-amino)alkyl] -2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamides, including pramiracetam



Links:

A.) Posts MBox                                    B.) Faxnotes: Childrens Med Cntr of Dallas Tx
C.) Nat'l DSC; Position Statement        D.) Piracetam Discussion Group
E.) MegaBrain Report                          F.) "Piracetam Research"
G.) "a brief guide"



Misc Articles:

A.) "Cochrane Injuries Group" *lists pramiracetam as possible treatment in the U.K..
B.)  "ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE: PATHOLOGY AND TREATMENT" *treatment in the U.K..
C.)  "Listed (Pramiracetam) here as a Antidepressant used in the U.K.."
D.) "List of research projects at Duke University. Pramiracetam had two Projects done on it"
E.) "Dementia of The Alzheimer Type; Research & Treatment (Pramiracetam)"



*Note: link "D" is primarilary for parents of Downsyndrome childred who wish to discuss the possible benefits of "piracetam" as a treatment. If you visit the link provided please keep this in mind and be curtious. Respect each others conditions and situations. Alot of information can be shared by asking and answering questions. And after which you might want to visit the founder of the group here and say hello :)     "visit"


*Page two (2) of Narcolepsy & Impaired Memory  "Click-Here"


 


Back to Introduction Page